http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/mult_pkg/faq/general/tail_tests.htm

When you conduct a test of statistical significance, whether it is from a correlation, an ANOVA, a regression or some other kind of test, you are given a p-value somewhere in the output. If your test statistic is symmetrically distributed, you can select one of three alternative hypotheses. Two of these correspond to one-tailed tests and one corresponds to a two-tailed test. However, the p-value presented is (almost always) for a two-tailed test. But how do you choose which test? Is the p-value appropriate for your test? And, if it is not, how can you calculate the correct p-value for your test given the p-value in your output?

Because the one-tailed test provides more power to detect an effect, you may be tempted to use a one-tailed test whenever you have a hypothesis about the direction of an effect. Before doing so, consider the consequences of missing an effect in the other direction. Imagine you have developed a new drug that you believe is an improvement over an existing drug. You wish to maximize your ability to detect the improvement, so you opt for a one-tailed test. In doing so, you fail to test for the possibility that the new drug is less effective than the existing drug. The consequences in this example are extreme, but they illustrate a danger of inappropriate use of a one-tailed test.

So when is a one-tailed test appropriate? If you consider the consequences of missing an effect in the untested direction and conclude that they are negligible and in no way irresponsible or unethical, then you can proceed with a one-tailed test. For example, imagine again that you have developed a new drug. It is cheaper than the existing drug and, you believe, no less effective. In testing this drug, you are only interested in testing if it less effective than the existing drug. You do not care if it is significantly more effective. You only wish to show that it is not less effective. In this scenario, a one-tailed test would be appropriate.

Choosing a one-tailed test for the sole purpose of attaining significance is not appropriate. Choosing a one-tailed test after running a two-tailed test that failed to reject the null hypothesis is not appropriate, no matter how "close" to significant the two-tailed test was. Using statistical tests inappropriately can lead to invalid results that are not replicable and highly questionable--a steep price to pay for a significance star in your results table!

Below, we have the output from a two-sample t-test in Stata. The test is comparing the mean male score to the mean female score. The null hypothesis is that the difference in means is zero. The two-sided alternative is that the difference in means is not zero. There are two one-sided alternatives that one could opt to test instead: that the male score is higher than the female score (diff > 0) or that the female score is higher than the male score (diff < 0). In this instance, Stata presents results for all three alternatives. Under the headings **Ha: diff < 0** and **Ha: diff > 0** are the results for the one-tailed tests. In the middle, under the heading **Ha: diff != 0** (which means that the difference is not equal to 0), are the results for the two-tailed test.

Two-sample t test with equal variances ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Group | Obs Mean Std. Err. Std. Dev. [95% Conf. Interval] ---------+-------------------------------------------------------------------- male | 91 50.12088 1.080274 10.30516 47.97473 52.26703 female | 109 54.99083 .7790686 8.133715 53.44658 56.53507 ---------+-------------------------------------------------------------------- combined | 200 52.775 .6702372 9.478586 51.45332 54.09668 ---------+-------------------------------------------------------------------- diff | -4.869947 1.304191 -7.441835 -2.298059 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Degrees of freedom: 198 Ho: mean(male) - mean(female) = diff = 0 Ha: diff < 0 Ha: diff != 0 Ha: diff > 0 t = -3.7341 t = -3.7341 t = -3.7341P < t = 0.0001 P > |t| = 0.0002 P > t = 0.9999

Note that the test statistic, -3.7341, is the same for all of these tests. The two-tailed p-value is P > |t|. This can be rewritten as P(>3.7341) + P(< -3.7341). Because the t-distribution is symmetric about zero, these two probabilities are equal: P > |t| = 2 * P(< -3.7341). Thus, we can see that the two-tailed p-value is twice the one-tailed p-value for the alternative hypothesis that (diff < 0). The other one-tailed alternative hypothesis has a p-value of P(>-3.7341) = 1-(P<-3.7341) = 1-0.0001 = 0.9999. So, depending on the direction of the one-tailed hypothesis, its p-value is either 0.5*(two-tailed p-value) or 1-0.5*(two-tailed p-value) if the test statistic symmetrically distributed about zero.

In this example, the two-tailed p-value suggests rejecting the null hypothesis of no difference. Had we opted for the one-tailed test of (diff > 0), we would fail to reject the null because of our choice of tails.

The output below is from a regression analysis in Stata. Unlike the example above, only the two-sided p-values are presented in this output.

Source | SS df MS Number of obs = 200 -------------+------------------------------ F( 2, 197) = 46.58 Model | 7363.62077 2 3681.81039 Prob > F = 0.0000 Residual | 15572.5742 197 79.0486001 R-squared = 0.3210 -------------+------------------------------ Adj R-squared = 0.3142 Total | 22936.195 199 115.257261 Root MSE = 8.8909 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ socst | Coef. Std. Err. t P>|t| [95% Conf. Interval] -------------+----------------------------------------------------------------science | .2191144 .0820323 2.67 0.008 .0573403 .3808885math | .4778911 .0866945 5.51 0.000 .3069228 .6488594 _cons | 15.88534 3.850786 4.13 0.000 8.291287 23.47939 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

For each regression coefficient, the tested null hypothesis is that the coefficient is equal to zero. Thus, the one-tailed alternatives are that the coefficient is greater than zero and that the coefficient is less than zero. To get the p-value for the one-tailed test of the variable **science** having a coefficient greater than zero, you would divide the .008 by 2, yielding .004 because the effect is going in the predicted direction. This is P(>2.67). If you had made your prediction in the other direction (the opposite direction of the model effect), the p-value would have been 1 - .004 = .996. This is P(<2.67). For all three p-values, the test statistic is 2.67.

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