注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

have a good time !!

mind act upon mind

 
 
 

日志

 
 

科技写作:使用正确的平行结构  

2013-04-02 01:27:52|  分类: SCI |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

由“and,” “or,” 或“but”连接在一起的名称和思想具有同等的重要性,这些平等的思想应该以相似的方式表达,应该使用同样的语法结构。这些语法结构可以是单独的词、介词短语、不定式短语或从句。

例1:

Based on our hypothesis, we expected to see a decrease in the infection rate and and increase in survival of patients.

例2:

S.franciscanus sperm can fertilize S. purpuratus eggs, but L. pictus sperm cannot.

例3:

Gene targeting in P. patens occurs both in the laboratory and at its natural habitat.

需要注意的是,例4-25中“in the laboratory”和“at its natural habitat”虽然所用介词不同,但也是平行结构。判断是否为平行结构,最重要的一点是看两部分是否都用了介词。

不要使用模糊不清的语法关系表达平行的思想,这会让读者感到困惑。

例4:

Prolonged febrile illness together with subcutaneous nodules in a child could be due to an infection with a Gram+organism, but it could also be that the child suffers from rheumatic disease. (该句中,“but”前、后的两组词不是平行结构,所以无法让人立刻清楚意识到句子的后半部分表达的是“另一种病因”。既然句子前、后两部分在逻辑性和重要性上是平等的,就应该采用平行结构。)

修改后的例4:

Prolonged febrile illness together with subcutaneous nodules in a child could be due to an infection with a Gram+organism, but it could also bedue to rheumatic disease.

进一步简化的例 4:

Prolonged febrile illness together with subcutaneous nodules in a child could be due to an infection with a Gram+organism or due to rheumatic disease.

如果一句话中包含两个或两个以上的思想,那么这些思想不但应该以平行结构表达,还应该协调排列。细心的作者会从语法和逻辑两方面对这些思想加以协调。合理的方式应该是根据单词数量由短及长地表述思想,这样会使句子更加优美。

例5a:

Loss of coral reefs will affect organisms, such as turtles and sea birds that depend on specific habitats for reproduction, and beaches.

例5b:

Loss of coral reefs will affect beaches and organisms such as turtles and sea birds that depend on specific habitats for reproduction.

例5a以“beaches” 结尾似乎太过突然。而5b就流畅很多,因为此处平行的两个思想是由短及长排列的。

 

练习:修改下列句子中错误的平行结构

1.The pathogenesis observed in other cells, such as circulating monocytes, may differ from endothelial cells.
2.The stability of these particles appears to be regulated by RNA helicase activity and protein phosphorylation.
3.Dengue hemorrhagic fever is particularly a concern during heterologous secondary dengue virus infections where cross-reactive antibodies are implicated in immune pathology as well as antibody-enhanced infection.
4.MAPs proteins are able to destabilize RNA helices in the presence of ATP, but DNA helices remain stabilized.
5.Diabetes can be affected both by exercise and diet.
6.The fat bodies were washed twice with TBS/Tween, incubated in secondary antibody for 2 hr, and then they were mounted onto glass slides.
7.Aptamer complexes could be used as highly sensitive biosensors, detection probes, efficient inhibitors of cancer, or they can be powerful tools for accelerating the process of drug discovery.
8.The pellet was rinsed with 200 ethanol, air dried, and it was then resuspended in 10 d H2O.
9.These peaks were dependent on kinetic heat flow, not state transition heat flow.
10.Spatial coupling acts on the activator variable and also the inhibitor variable.
11.Other research may indicate that the translating ribosome has the ability to open up downstream mRNA secondary structure and in this way a block in translation initiation is overcome.
12.Whether the crisis for liquids would be avoided in some way at lower temperatures than measurements have been made is controversial and is of limited relevance to describing the observed behavior.
13.The thiol monolayer is stabilized not only by gold-sulfur bonding but also interactions between p-MBA molecules.
14.Most sulfur atoms, bonded to a phenylring and gold atoms in two different shells, are also chiral centers.
15.To keep the time-varying term to a minimum, we study the balance over two long periods, from January to June and July to December.
16.The internal pressure must not only depend on volume but also the rate of filling.
17.We provide a broad overview of the project, including the target population, the project’s primary aim, the problem areas the project addresses, and where the services are being delivered.
18.NbCA1 acts as a negative regulator and a suppresser of SGT1, RAR1, and HSP90.
 
参考答案

1. The pathogenesis observed in other cells, such as circulating monocytes, may differ from that in endothelial cells.
2. The stability of these particles appears to be regulated by RNA helicase activity and by protein phosphorylation.
3. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is particularly a concern during heterologous secondary dengue virus infections where cross-reactive antibodies are implicated in immune pathology as well as in antibody-enhanced infection.
4. MAPs proteins are able to destabilize RNA helices in the presence of ATP but not DNA helices.
5. Diabetes canbe affected by both exercise and diet.
or: Diabetes can be affected both by exercise and by diet.
6. The fat bodies were washed twice with TBS/Tween, incubated in secondary antibody for 2 hr, and then mounted onto glass slides.
7. Aptamer complexes could be used as highly sensitive biosensors, detection probes, efficient inhibitors of cancer, or as powerful tools for accelerating the process of drug discovery.
8. The pellet was rinsed with 200 pl ethanol, air dried, and then resuspended in 10 pl dH20.
9. These peaks were dependent on kinetic heat flow, not on state transition heat flow.
10. Spatial coupling acts on the activator variable and also on the inhibitor variable.
11. Other research may indicate that the translating ribosome has the ability to open up downstream mRNA secondary structure and to overcome a block in translation initiation in this way.
12. Whether the crisis for liquids would be avoided in some way at lower temperatures than those at which meaqurements have been made is controversial and is of limited relevance to describing the observed behavior.
13. The thiol monolayer is stabilized not only by gold-sulfur bonding but also by interactions between p-MBA molecules.
14. Most sulfur atoms, bonded to a phenyl ring and to gold atoms in two different shells, are also chiral centers.
15. To keep the time-varying term to a minimum, we study the balance over two long periods, from January to June and from July to December.
16. The internal pressure must not only depend on volume but also on the rate of filling.
17. We provide a broad overview of the project, including the target population, the project's primary aim, the problem areas the project addresses, and the location where the services are being delivered.
18. NbCA1 acts as a negative regulator and as a suppresser ofSGT1, RAR1, and HSP90.

信源地址:http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-38899-675413.html

  评论这张
 
阅读(310)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017